Tuberculosis (TB): Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

BlogTuberculosis (TB): Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention
Tuberculosis (TB) Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Tuberculosis (TB): Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has a serious impact on the lungs. TB is caused due to bacteria and it can spread from one person to another when a person sneezes or coughs with an uncovered mouth and nose.

However, the human body can harbor the bacteria which causes tuberculosis and your immune system prevents you from getting sick. So, the doctors have made a differentiation between:

  • Latent Tuberculosis

In this, the bacteria of TB infection remains in an inactive state in the human body and it does not show any symptoms. This is also known as inactive TB and is not infectious. But this can easily turn into active TB so it cannot be avoided and its treatment is necessary

  • Active Tuberculosis

This is infectious and can spread to others and causes the symptoms. There are two cases that take place in the situation of Active TB. It can take place in the first few weeks of infection or in the later years.

Symptoms of Active Tuberculosis

  • Coughing for three or more than three weeks and sometimes getting blood in it.
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
    Pain in chest or pain while breathing or coughing
  • Fever
  • Inadvertently weight loss
  • Sweating out during the night time
  • Loss of appetite and chills

Causes of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis spreads from one person to another because of a bacteria that exists in microscopic droplets that are released into the air. The bacteria spread when people have the disease and they do not get it treated. One of the main reasons is when active TB patients cough, sneeze, laugh and perform many activities that may spread the bacteria into the air.

Despite the fact that TB is transmissible, it is not easy to get infected by it from strangers as compared to the people with whom you live or work. If a person infected with tuberculosis is taking proper treatment for at least two weeks they are not an infectious person anymore.

Tuberculosis affects several parts of the human body such as the spine, brain or kidney. The symptoms of TB vary with the organs of the body. When it comes to latent TB nearly one-third of the world’s population is suffering from it. This means that there are people who are infected with TB bacteria but cannot transmit the disease.

Statistics related to tuberculosis cases in the USA

  1. In the year 2019 US provisionally reported 8,920 cases of TB.
  2. There are approximately 13 million people in the United state who are suffering from Latent TB infection.
  3. There are 60 Jurisdictions in the United States that report TB data to CDC.

How can you prevent tuberculosis?

It is easy to prevent tuberculosis if you don’t spread your germs to others. It is essential to get a few weeks of treatment to stop it from spreading. These are the certain tips which help to keep people from getting infected:

  • Stay at your home:
    The initial weeks of TB are very infectious and should be taken care of so that it does not spread to other people. Avoid going to school or the workplace or sleeping with someone else during the initial weeks of treatment when you have active tuberculosis.
  • Ventilate your room
    The germs of TB spread faster and easier in the closed spaces where the movement of air does not exist. The windows and doors should be kept open so that air can move in or out. Using a fan is also helpful for the ventilation of air.
  • Cover your mouth
    An active tuberculosis patient should always use a tissue to cover their mouth every time when they laugh, sneeze or cough. Don’t throw tissue directly in the dustbin, wrap it and then throw it away.
  • Wear a mask
    Whenever you are around with people who are in the first three weeks of infection and taking the treatment, the use of a surgical mask helps to reduce the risk of transmission.

An active TB infection is transmissible and can lead to deaths if a person does not approach for proper treatment at the right time. If the cases are detected early by the doctors then it can be treated. Any person who has any symptoms of TB or found any risk of developing it should visit the doctor immediately.

The cause of Tuberculosis is bacteria and has a severe impact on the lungs majorly. It is spread through the air from one person to another person but it is curable and preventable. When people who are infected with bacteria cough, sneeze or spit they spread the germs in the air and people who are exposed to inhale a few drops of it the bacteria is transmitted to the other person. It is always good to keep a check on the symptoms of TB and cure it becomes active tuberculosis.

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